Fracking the life out of Arkansas and beyond

By Rady Ananda

(Updated below.) The last four months of 2010, nearly 500 earthquakes rattled Guy, Arkansas. [1] The entire state experienced 38 quakes in 2009. [2] The spike in quake frequency precedes and coincides with the 100,000 dead fish on a 20-mile stretch of the Arkansas River that included Roseville Township on December 30. The next night, 5,000 red-winged blackbirds and starlings dropped dead out of the sky in Beebe. [3] Hydraulic fracturing is the most likely culprit for all three events, as it causes earthquakes with a resultant release of toxins into the environment. [4]

A close look at Arkansas’ history of earthquakes and drilling reveals a shocking surge in quake frequency following advanced drilling. The number of quakes in 2010 nearly equals all of Arkansas’ quakes for the entire 20th century. The oil and gas industry denies any correlation, but the advent of hydrofracking followed by earthquakes is a story repeated across the nation. It isn’t going to stop any time soon, either. Fracking has gone global.

Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) pumps water and chemicals into the ground at a pressurized rate exceeding what the bedrock can withstand, resulting in a microquake that produces rock fractures. Though initiated in 1947, technological advances now allow horizontal fracturing, vastly increasing oil and gas collection. [5] In 1996, shale-gas production in the U.S. accounted for 2 percent of all domestic natural gas production, reports Christopher Bateman in Vanity Fair. “Some industry analysts predict shale gas will represent a full half of total domestic gas production within 10 years.” [6] In 2000, U.S. gas reserve estimates stood at 177 trillion cubic feet, but ramped up to 245 tcf in 2008. These new technologies prompt experts to increase global gas reserve estimates ninefold. [7]

The grid below shows a section of the Arkansas River, with Roseville Township at bottom, where the first reports of the fish kill originated. The green lines surrounding and crossing the river indicate gas pipes, ranging from 8-20” in diameter. Any number of leaks in the pipes can explain the fish kill. Gas wells are shown by yellow ‘suns’ (see red arrows) and range from 1,500 to 6,500 feet deep. (Disposal wells, where drilling waste products are injected at high pressures, go as deep as 12,000 feet.) The red numbers next to the ‘suns’ give the number of gas wells in that spot, numbering close to 50 in this small area. [8]

(The gray numbers relate to the Township Numbering System. Each square equals one square mile. Click map for larger image.)

In December alone, over 150 earthquakes rocked Arkansas. [1] The swarm of quakes in Guy likely results from six years of intense drilling. Guy sits within the Fayetteville Shale Formation which, according to the Arkansas Geological Survey (AGS), is “the current focus of a regional shale-gas exploration and development program.” A billion cubic feet of gas has been produced from this area since 2004. [9]

Thousands of wells are in operation in North-Central Arkansas (blue section of the following map). [10] Beebe, where the bird kill occurred, is in White County and Guy is at the northern end of Faulkner Co., where the anomalous earthquakes continue.

Red-winged blackbirds roost in clusters up to a million or more birds, often with other species like starlings and cowbirds. (In the 1950s and ’60s, roosts could number 20 million birds.) Blackbirds prefer low, dense vegetative cover in wetlands or near streams. Though some may perch 30 feet above the water, most perch within one to two feet of it, and some will roost with their feet resting in water. Blackbirds can range up to 50 miles a day from roost to feeding sites, but they all settle in for the night before sunset. [11]

An earthquake of whatever scale can release a stream or cloud of gas and fracking chemicals which could easily explain why sleeping birds would suddenly take flight, and then quickly die as they succumbed to the toxic fumes. Of note, eight measured quakes within 40 miles of Beebe, and within 75 miles of Roseville, hit the area on December 30 thru several minutes past midnight on January 1st. [12] This excludes any micro- or miniquakes which can have the same effect. Significantly, the area is known for its prolific microquakes — numbering 40,000 since 1982. [1]

Canadian Geologist Jack Century crusades against induced seismicity from irresponsible drilling. In a 2009 speech before the Peace River Environmental Society, he provided a brief explanation of how fracking induces earthquakes, completely refuting industry denial that fracking causes quakes. Fracking induces not only micro- and mini-seismic actions that can compromise the integrity of well casings, but also large earthquakes registering on the order of 5 to 7 on the Richter Scale, resulting in human deaths. [13]

Scott Ausbrooks, geohazards supervisor for AGS, told CNN in December that while earthquakes aren’t unusual in Arkansas, the frequency is. [14] Indeed, they’ve had a 1,200 percent increase in earthquakes over 2009 data just in the last four months of 2010. All of the quakes registered less than 3 on the Richter Scale; over 98% of them occurred near Guy, where we find the largest concentration of gas wells; and 99% occurred outside the New Madrid Fault zone (circled in red below) where seismic activity is expected, implying they are human induced [1]:

Though AGS publicly claims no earthquake relation to drilling, in early December, Arkansas banned new drilling permits until further notice.

CNN reported that “According to the Arkansas Oil and Gas Commission, there are at least a half dozen ‘disposal wells’ within a 500-square-mile zone around Guy.” Ausbrooks noted similar “incidents in Colorado in the 1960s at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, where deep water injection was tied to earthquakes.” [14]

Arkansas Earthquake and Drilling History

When comparing Arkansas’ earthquake history with its drilling history, a causative correlation becomes obvious.

The entire 19th century saw 15 recorded earthquakes and none in the first decade of the new century. A total of 694 quakes rocked Arkansas in the 20th century. That number was surpassed in 2009-2010, with the bulk (483) occurring the last three months of 2010. Table 1 was prepared using complete quake data thru 2009 [15], complete data from August thru December, 2010 [1], and just North Central Arkansas quake data from January thru July, 2010. [16]

Arkla, Inc., through its many morphs, mergers and acquisitions, is and has been a key gas driller in Arkansas. Between 1975 and the early 1980s, the company found more gas than it produced. By 1982, Arkla was able to sell Central Louisiana Electric Company more than 100 million cubic feet of gas daily. By the early 1990s, it operated the sixth-largest pipeline system in the United States and was among the ten largest operators of natural gas reserves. [17] Its production timeline coincides with the massive jump in earthquakes in the 1970s and 1980s. Today, 37 companies drill for gas and oil in Arkansas. [18]

Unregulated Fracking on a Global March

The U.S. and Canada are not alone in exploiting this highly destructive technology. Poland also embraces fracking. Several energy companies are currently exploring Poland’s reserves, including Conoco-Phillips, ExxonMobil, Marathon, Chevron, Talisman, Lane Energy, BNK Petroleum, Emfesz, EurEnergy Resources, RAG, San Leon Energy and Sorgenia E&P. [19] These new technologies will significantly impact the global trade in natural gas, according to Forbes [20]:

“Poland consumes 14 billion cubic meters of gas a year and imports more than 70% of it from Russia. It is easy to see how the country could benefit from starting shale gas drilling as soon as possible. Not only could it decrease its dependency on Russia, it might even turn into a gas exporter.”

Bateman noted that Western and Central Europe have leased their lands to frackers. Australians are suffering from the same frack contaminations as Americans, and China is also exploiting the new technology. [6]

Josh Fox’s 2010 film, Gasland, documents a multitude of harmful consequences on animal and human life, as well as property values. The most infamous scene shows people able to ignite their contaminated tap water [21]:

Fox makes the point that Dick Cheney’s former company, Halliburton, lobbied for and won exemptions from the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, Superfund, and the Safe Drinking Water Act, thanks to our corporate-owned Congress.

Nor do drillers have to disclose the toxic chemicals used, contrary to the 1986 Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. [22]  Though it did not hesitate to pass on Wall Street’s gambling debts to the public (twice), Congress has not found the will to pass the Fracturing Responsibility and Awareness of Chemicals (FRAC) Act.

In 2004, the Environmental Protection Agency determined that fracking poses no threat to water supplies and that no further studies were needed. [23] From some Orwellian nightmare, however, at least 65 of the chemicals used in fracking are considered hazardous by the EPA. They have been linked to “cancer; liver, kidney, brain, respiratory and skin disorders; birth defects; and other health problems,” according to a 2005 report by the Oil and Gas Accountability Project. Of primary concern to citizens, OGAP notes that “Approximately half of the water that Americans rely on for drinking comes from underground sources.” [24]

Wyoming took a proactive stance on full disclosure of fracking chemicals when it passed new rules in September. Loopholes, however, still allow companies to claim proprietary ownership of such information, restricting it from public view. [25]

Given the EPA’s position that fracking is safe, it’s not likely that Arkansas citizens will get much help from the federal government. Nor will they find a friend at the state level. The Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality has so far been unwilling or unable to stop UMETCO Minerals Corporation from illegally dumping toxic chemicals into streams. [26]

The same situation applies across the nation where state governments protect industry over environmental and human health. Recently, outgoing Governor David Paterson vetoed legislation that would have put a moratorium on vertical and horizontal hydraulic drilling in New York. [27] Already, Pennsylvania leases a third of its public lands to private energy drillers. [21]

Given government bias toward energy giants, and BP’s destruction of the Gulf of Mexico is a case in point, more direct action may be required by citizens, if environmental and human health are to be saved from the fossil fuel industry.

Rady Ananda holds a B.S. in Natural Resources from The Ohio State University’s School of Agriculture.

*Erratum: The sentence “The entire state experienced 38 quakes in 2009. [2]” has been replaced with: “The number of quakes in 2010 nearly equals all of Arkansas’ quakes for the entire 20th century” from the second paragraph.

Notes:

1. Arkansas Geological Survey, “Arkansas Earthquake Updates.” http://www.geology.ar.gov/geohazards/earthquakes.htm

2. Arkansas Geological Survey, “2009 Earthquakes.” http://www.geology.ar.gov/xl/2009_Earthquakes.xls

3. Food Freedom, “Massive fish kill and 1000s of birds fall from the sky in Arkansas,” 2 Jan. 2010. http://foodfreedom.wordpress.com/2011/01/02/massive-fish-kill-and-1000s-of-birds-fall-from-the-sky-in-arkansas/

4. Earthworks, “Hydraulic Fracturing and Earthquakes.” http://www.earthworksaction.org/fracturingearthquakes.cfm

Also see:

Ben Cassleman, “Temblors Rattle Texas Town: Residents Suspect a Drilling Boom Is Triggering Small Quakes, but Scientists Lack Proof,” Wall Street Journal, 12 June 2009. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124476331270108225.html

James Glanz, “Deep in Bedrock, Clean Energy and Quake Fears,” New York Times, 23 June 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/24/business/energy-environment/24geotherm.html

James Glanz, Video: “The Danger of Digging Deeper,” New York Times, 23 June 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/06/23/us/Geothermal.html

5. U.S. Department of Energy, “Hydraulic Fracturing White Paper,” June 2004. http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw/uic/pdfs/cbmstudy_attach_uic_append_a_doe_whitepaper.pdf

6. Christopher Bateman, “A Colossal Fracking Mess,” Vanity Fair, 16 June 2010. http://www.vanityfair.com/business/features/2010/06/fracking-in-pennsylvania-201006?currentPage=all

7. Martin Walker, “Russia’s Fracked Future,” UPI, 1 Feb. 2010. http://www.upi.com/Top_News/Analysis/2010/02/01/Walkers-World-Russias-fracked-future/UPI-21421265042152/

8. Arkansas Geological Survey, “Fayetteville Shale Gas Play West Map,” Last updated 2 March 2010. http://www.geology.ar.gov/maps_pdf/fossilfuels/Fay%20West%20Map%2042×44.pdf

9. Arkansas Geological Survey, “Gas.” http://www.geology.ar.gov/fossil_fuels/gas.htm

10. Arkansas Geological Survey, “Fayetteville Shale Gas Play.” http://www.geology.ar.gov/home/fayetteville_play.htm

11. Brooke Meanley, “The Roosting Behavior of the Red-Winged Blackbird in the Southern United States,” Wilson Bulletin, Vol. 77 No.3, pp 217-228, Sept. 1965. http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Wilson/v077n03/p0217-p0228.pdf

12. U.S. Geological Survey, “Map Centered at 35°N, 93°W” Accessed Jan. 5, 2010: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsus/Maps/US2/34.36.-94.-92.php

13. Jack Century, “Earthquake Risks: Building a Nuclear Power Plant near Peace River, Alberta,” Peace River Environmental Society, May 2009 (71 mins.) http://peaceriverenvironmentalsociety.org/; 8-part video at http://www.youtube.com/results?search_type=&search_query=jack+century&aq=f

14. CNN, “Arkansas Earthquakes,” 13 Dec. 2010. http://www.wibw.com/nationalnews/headlines/Arkansas_Earthquakes_111815534.html

15. Arkansas Geological Survey, “Earthquake Archive,” 2009. http://www.geology.ar.gov/xl/Earthquake_Archive.xls

16. Arkansas Geological Survey, “Recent and Historical Earthquakes in North-Central Arkansas,” October 2010 http://www.geology.arkansas.gov/maps_pdf/geohazards/CentralArkansasMediaMap.pdf

17. Funding Universe, “Arkla Inc.” n.d. http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/ARKLA-INC-Company-History.html

18. Manta.com, “37 Drilling Oil and Gas Wells Companies in Arkansas,” n.d.
http://www.manta.com/mb_44_E317D_04/drilling_oil_and_gas_wells/arkansas

19. STRATFOR, “Poland: Fracing On The Rise?” Forbes Magazine, 1 June 2010. http://blogs.forbes.com/energysource/2010/06/16/poland-fracing-on-the-rise/

20. TREFIS Team, “ConocoPhillips Has Big Fracking Plans For Poland, Stock Has Upside,” Forbes Magazine, 14 Dec. 2010. http://blogs.forbes.com/greatspeculations/2010/12/14/conocophillips-has-big-fracking-plans-for-poland-stock-has-upside/

21. Josh Fox, Gasland, 2010. http://www.gaslandthemovie.com/. See trailer showing ignited tap water at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UrnnQ17SH_A.

22. Sarah Collins and Tom Kenworthy, “Energy Industry Fights Chemical Disclosure: Natural gas companies want to prevent oversight of fracking,” Center for American Progress, April 2010. http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2010/04/fracking.html

23. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Evaluation of Impacts to Underground Sources of Drinking Water by Hydraulic Fracturing of Coalbed Methane Reservoirs Study,” June 2004. http://water.epa.gov/type/groundwater/uic/class2/hydraulicfracturing/wells_coalbedmethanestudy.cfm

24. Lisa Sumi, “Our Drinking Water at Risk: What EPA and the Oil and Gas Industry Don’t Want Us to Know about Hydraulic Fracturing,” Oil and Gas Accountability Project, April 2005. http://www.earthworksaction.org/pubs/DrinkingWaterAtRisk.pdf

25. Earthworks, Powder River Basin Resources Council, “Wyoming Requires Disclosure of Chemicals in Natural Gas Drilling,” 16 Sep 2010. http://earthworksaction.org/PR_WYdisclosure.cfm

26. Karoline Wightman, “UMETCO Minerals Corp not yet fined for releasing chemicals,” Fox News, 16 Nov. 2010. http://www.fox16.com/news/local/story/UMETCO-Minerals-Corp-not-yet-fined-for-releasing/cOwdIEMf-kugosx8EWbrQQ.cspx?rss=315

27. Tom Zeller, “New York Governor Vetoes Fracking Bill,” New York Times, 11 Dec. 2010. http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/12/11/new-york-governor-vetoes-fracking-bill/

####

Jan. 7 UPDATE: Missing from this report is the information that the US military apparently drilled 500 deep wells in Central Arkansas to dispose of phosgene, a highly toxic gas that causes the respiratory system to explode. (As reported above, deep well drilling causes earthquakes.)  According to the EU Times, Russia’s spy agency, GRU, reported that the US relocated 63,000 metric tons of phosgene from Iraq to the Arkansas’ Pine Bluff Arsenal, the nation’s premier chemical and bio weapons lab. Some or most of this material was and continues to be relocated to Afghanistan.

The GRU report claims that while transporting the gas via a US Air Force KC-767 tanker aircraft, a “malfunction” occurred in the aerial spraying system on December 30, killing 100,000 fish along a 20-mile stretch of the Arkansas River near Roseville.  The next day, on another KC-767, again the aerial spraying system “malfunctioned” killing 5,000 blackbirds near Beebe. According to CNN, “the birds suffered from acute physical trauma leading to internal hemorrhage and death.” A spokesperson for the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission “said the birds showed evidence of trauma in the breast tissue, with blood clots in the body cavity and a lot of internal bleeding. All major organs were normal.”

Bioweapons expert John Wheeler threatened to expose the operation and, according to GRU, was killed for it.

Given this new information, I modify my thesis. I now think the Arkansas fish kill and bird kill are a result of phosgene gas, rather than fracking. All the rest of the information stands, but the news about phosgene presents a more compelling explanation for the mass kills, if the GRU report is true.

Also see these global maps.

23 responses to “Fracking the life out of Arkansas and beyond

  1. Pingback: Massive fish kill and 1000s of birds fall from the sky in Arkansas | COTO Report

  2. I have also researched fracking and drew the same conclusion. This article makes me feel sane again because I finally found someone who agrees with me and did their homework. One vital bit of information on the exact cause comes from Faye Moore, interviewed on NBC, she heard loud noises. These noises were a poof followed by a whoosh. This would be a gas rupture followed by a gas release. I’ve done extensive research and posted it on a forum to share with others in hopes that the truth would be found. This is a great start. Here’s what I’ve been writing ever since I read about the swarm and the bird kill. Once I heard of the fish kill I was convinced they were linked. This is independant confirmation that my hypothesis is valid. I could write much more and will.

    http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread558925/pg5

    • yeah, thanks, Robin… we’re on the same page. the link you give tho only goes to the comments. I couldn’t find your article.

      anyhoo… it’s the fracking … and probably the disposal wells, too, but there aren’t enough diposal wells to account for all the earthquakes.

      I got a contradictory comment on this article at another website, and this guy offers an interesting theory… which might be a part (or a significant part) of what is happening:

      “I don’t think this is fracking or we would have seen this a lot sooner. I think this has something to do with the estimated 63K tons of Phosgene that the military confiscated in Iraq and stockpiling in the Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas.

      Pine Bluff began an accelerated “disposal” program by injecting it deep into the ground (what could POSSIBLY go wrong?) which has caused some 500 minor earthquakes in the area. Phosgene is considered on of the most dangerous of chemical/bio weapons b/c it causes the lungs and respiratory system to literally explode.

      The former Bush aide found in a New Jersey landfill happened to be a preeminent bio/chem warfare expert. ”

      kinda makes sense that we’d have seen these massive bird and fish kills before now.

      • I gave you the wrong page of the forum. Click on my name for the right one. I’ve been trying to inform people about the dangers from fracking. I am an amateur scientist, writer and dectective. So I’m just trying my best. I also posted a You Tube video.

        There are many sources for the earthquakes. There too many different companies using injection to tell which is the main culprit. It’s a gang. There is the fracking. There is also deep salt-water injection disposal from the fracking process. There is the weapons disposal which you detail. And there is also a Carbon Capture Plant along the Arkansas River. So it would seem that there is a freeforall happening all over the state. The intensive drilling and pumping has destablized the whole shale. Gas can migrate throughout fissures and fractures. I’ll stop there the rest is speculation.

        Just a suggestion. Examine the witness statements. There’s many clues in thier descriptions.
        It’s documented fact that deep injection disposal causes earthquakes.
        http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/faq/?categoryID=1&faqID=1

        http://www.youtube.com/user/ArkansasMysteryKill?feature=mhum

        Even though I’m not a reporter, I try to investigate a story in the same way you would. And I’m not a scientist, but I approached this subject using the research I’ve found to determine probability. And I hunted down and listen to the words of witnesses to track down the suspect. It’s a gang of them. There has been a couple of small quakes recently to the north east.

      • I forget to mention another area for research. I seem to be the only one in the world worried about Yellowstone. Fracking is widespread in Wyoming. What if fracking causes gas migration near Yellowstone? Methane in Yellowstone’s aquifer.

        Imagine fiery geysers. My research has raised some legitimate concerns. I am worried about gas migration into Yellowstone.
        I hate even saying it because you can call me alarmist and deduled, but there is nothing beyond the realm of possiblity in what I say. I’m just applying the research to Yellowstone and asking questions? I’ve even suggested my concerns to the YVO. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. This is only a speculative hypothesis. But I’m in the ballpark and I’m not out in left field.

  3. thx, Willie. I’ve received new information that leads me modify the above report. (See UPDATE at top of article.)

    The information about fracking, earthquakes and the toxic effects on the environment stands. The information about Arkansas’ earthquake and drilling history stands.

    But I now think the Beebe bird kill and the Roseville fish kill are the result of phosgene gas being released in the area.

    To those who have said each incident is a single species kill, this is inaccurate. It is true that drum fish predominately died, and that most of the birds that died were blackbirds, but in both cases, other species were involved. Since the area was populated mostly by blackbirds, then of course mostly blackbirds would die. Same goes for the drum fish.

    ####

    As to the other mass kills occurring around the planet… I don’t know if it’s phosgene gas, but we are definitely under attack.

  4. here’s an interesting news story. Something showed up on the radar near Little Rock, which the National Weather Service says is birds….

    NONE of the official explanations makes sense

    Weather radar shows something unusual around time birds fell
    http://www.todaysthv.com/news/local/story.aspx?storyid=137071&catid=2

    (with video)

  5. The earthquakes in Central Arkansas continue. Today, Jan. 8, there has been four.

    http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsus/Maps/US2/34.36.-93.-91_eqs.php

  6. I should correct myself. There were not four earthquakes on the 8th.
    There were nine.

  7. hey, Progressive American Liberal has a fantabulous article on the subject… replete with maps, videos and numerous links.

    http://proamlib.blogspot.com/2011/01/strange-things-in-arkansas-dead-birds.html

  8. hi!
    Red about the birdkill and the damage to the internal organs, especially the lungs. I had to deal with the death of over 300 cows and calfs on my farm over the last 15 years alone, was covered up by government, started investigating on my own, linked it to exposure to high levels of ozone and nitrogenoxides, generated with directional energy devices modifying the oxygen and the nitrogen of the air with mostly deadly consequences. I posted a few month ago over one hundred pictures on the net, documenting the internal damage. There are implication concerning human health problems. The pictures can be acessed by googling my name : werner bock cattle.
    If anyone is interesting in more information, give me a ring at
    506 756 8687
    Werner Bock

  9. Pingback: Tweets that mention Fracking the life out of Arkansas and beyond | COTO Report -- Topsy.com

  10. Central Oklahoma has had a spate of small earthquakes in the last year. Local papers have been quick to clear the frackers, but a zillion small quakes in central Oklahoma? I mean, please…
    I see plenty of info on Texas and Arkansas frack-quakes – perhaps a bit of scrutiny aimed at OK would serve to bolster the case for us all.
    Best – j

    • takes a lot of time to do the research for a paper like this… but I believe the case can be made that oil and gas drillers are the cause of OK’s earthquakes

  11. Pingback: EPA hides knowledge of radioactive waste in city water from fracking | COTO Report

  12. Well, it took three months since this article was posted, but good news:

    Fracking Well Shutdown Extended As Researchers Study Link To Earthquakes In Arkansas (HuffPo)

  13. Google Earth/Google Maps/Maplandia have all been complicit in hiding research from “public” view…you have to be smarter and dig deeper to find information relative to researching certain “controversial” matters.

    In the past 1-2 years, the maps have all been INTENTIONALLY OBSCURED in an effort to cross-correlate Hydro-fracking and related earthquakes and other “natural” disasters. While clean maps are available for a HGH PRICE, the average unpaid researcher is forced to find the infomration through other means and methods, of which I have utilized.

    I am grateful for the FACTUAL information as lead-ins, but the intentional obscuration of map access is apalling!

    Freedom of information? Ony if you PAY THE HIGHEST BIDDER! I am against enviro-terrorism by activists as much as I am against illegal and/or irresponsible fracking!

  14. Pingback: 170 million barrels of PA frack waste injected in Ohio lands | COTO Report

  15. Pingback: Places To Donate Blood in Fayetteville, North Carolina | | Top Online ResourcesTop Online Resources

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